Erstatningsoppgjøret i forsikringstilfeller


Begge parter, både forsikringsselskap og forsikringstaker, har plikter ved et skadetilfelle.

Skademelding, erstatningskrav og foreldelse

Forsikringstaker plikter å melde skaden til forsikringsselskapet uten ugrunnet opphold. Det vil kunne få betydning hvis han grovt forsømmer det.

Videre plikter forsikringstakeren å fremsette et krav. Forsikringstakeren mister retten til erstatning hvis ikke kravet er meldt til forsikringsselskapet innen ett år etter at han fikk kunnskap om de forhold som begrunner kravet.

Dersom forsikringstakeren ikke forfølger kravet innen rimelig tid, kan det foreldes. Hovedregelen er at forsikringskrav foreldes tre år etter utløpet av det kalenderår forsikringstakeren fikk nødvendig kunnskap om de forhold som begrunner kravet. Skulle det gå lang tid før den sikrede får kunnskap om kravet, gjelder en 10-årsfrist fra utløpet av det kalenderår forsikringstilfellet inntrakk.

Opplysningsplikt – svik

Ved skadeoppgjøret har forsikringsselskapet behov for opplysninger, for å kunne ta stilling til om selskapet er ansvarlig for skaden, og for å kunne beregne erstatningen. Selskapet er avhengig av å få så fullstendige og korrekte opplysninger som mulig. Forsikringstakeren er derfor gjennom forsikringsavtaleloven pålagt en opplysningsplikt ved skadeoppgjøret.

Skal forsikringsselskapene kunne drive virksomheten på en tilfredsstillende måte, er det helt avhengig av å kunne stole på de opplysninger den forsikrigstakeren gir også ved et skadetilfelle.

Desverre er det mange personer som urettmessig forsøker å tilvende seg midler via forsikringsoppgjør. Dette har ført til at forsikringsselskapene må ha virkningsfulle reaksjonsmidler mot dem som bevisst opptrer uredelig under skadeoppgjøret.

Forsikringsavtaleloven har derfor bestemmelser som skal ramme forsøk på forsikringssvindel. Det heter der at den som bevisst gir uriktige eller ufullstendige opplysninger som vedkommende må forstå kan få betydning for erstatningsoppgjøret, mister retten til ethvert krav mot forsikringsselskapet i forbindelse med samme skade. Det betyr i praksis at f.eks. den som ved totalskade av eget hus i vinnings hensikt fører opp et større tap enn vedkommende har hatt av innbo og løsøre, mister retten til erstatning for både innbo og bygning.


Forsikringsavtaleloven gir adgang til å ta inn detaljerte bestemmelser om erstatningsberegningen i sine vilkår. Utgangspunktet er at forsikringstakeren skal ha dekket sitt økonomiske tap dersom forsikringssummen er tilstrekkelig.

Forsikringsselskapets betalings- og renteplikt

Erstatningen forfaller til betaling så snart selskapet har hatt rimelig tid til å klarlegge ansvarsforlholdet og beregne erstatningen.

Uavhengig av dette har forsikringstakeren krav på renter når det er gått to måneder etter at melding om forsikringstilfellet er sendt til forsikringsselskapet.

Denne hovedregelen om renteplikt gjelder ikke når forsikringsselskapet skal erstatte sikredes utlegg, for eksempel erstatte reparasjonsutgifter som sikrede selv har lagt ut. Da inntrer renteplikten tidligst to måneder etter at utlegget er gjort. Ved erstatning for avbruddstap, har forsikringstakeren krav på renter en måned etter utløpet av den periode forsikringsselskapet svarer for.

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